More and more businesses are implementing digital solutions to document management. Industries that previously relied upon “wet-ink” signatures for physical proof of consent now oftentimes collect electronic signatures instead in order to streamline document processing, distribution and storage. 

It is well-known that “wet-ink” signatures contain more evidence than copies of signatures, and, by their nature of being original signatures, are more inherently secure. If collected and maintained properly, however, biometric electronic signatures contain  evidence beyond what is available in the examination of traditional “wet-ink” signatures. The biometric data collected as part of an electronic signature provides dynamic data that analysis of a “wet-ink” signature can only infer.

Affiliated Forensic Laboratory was at the forefront of the emerging field of the forensic examination of electronic signatures. During her tenure there, Kathleen Annunziata Nicolaides  and Bill Flynn conducted research, published papers, worked cases, and testified in Daubert hearings on this type of forensic signature examination. In addition, both she and Bill Flynn  trained other forensic document examiners from around the world on the forensic examination of electronic signatures. Associated Forensic Laboratory continues work in this area of forensic document examinations.

For this type of case, our experts would need the following evidence:

  • The raw capture files containing the signatures in question.
  • The raw capture files containing any unquestioned (comparison) signatures.
  • Information concerning the make and model of the signature tablet used to acquire the signatures along with its capture rate and the number of data-points written to the raw file (the effective capture rate).
  • Any traditional “wet-ink” signatures (or copies of “wet-ink” signatures) that can be used for comparison.


If AFL can assist you by conducting a forensic examination of a questioned document, please complete an Inquiry Form by clicking on the tab marked “Retaining AFL.” We will be happy to discuss your case with you after completing a conflict check.